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PARASITES

Dye kills malaria parasites at speed not seen before

Research shows that the dye methylene blue is a safe antimalarial that kills malaria parasites at an unprecedented rate. Within two days, patients are cured of the disease and no longer transmit the parasite if they are bitten again by a mosquito. This discovery was made by Radboud university medical center scientists and international colleagues during a research project conducted in Mali. The results will be published in The Lancet Infectious Diseaseson February 6th.

The pressure is on when it comes to antimalarial medicines, as malaria parasites are increasingly resistant to the artemisinin-based combination therapies that are currently used. In addition, these medicines do very little to stop the spread of malaria, as the parasites remain in the blood for a long time, with the chance that other mosquitos are infected if they feed on the patient. The parasites split in the patient’s red blood cells, forming male and female sex cells (gametocytes). If another mosquito bites the patient, it sucks up the sex cells and these are fertilized in the mosquito’s stomach. The offspring then find their way to the mosquito’s salivary glands, where the cycle starts again.

Effect after just 48 hours

The gametocytes can stay in a person’s body for several weeks following treatment for malaria. In the new study in Mali, Radboudumc researchers added methylene blue to the artemisinin-based combination therapy. Methylene blue is a blue dye that is used in laboratories to distinguish dead cells from living cells. Adding the dye to the antimalaria medicine ensured that patients no longer infected other mosquitos, within as little as 48 hours. Patients who were not given methylene blue were able to infect other mosquitos for at least a week. Researcher Teun Bousema (Radboudumc) coordinated the study which was conducted together with the University of California (UCSF) and the Malaria Research and Training Center (MRTC). Bousema: “We noted that the male parasites disappeared from the bloodstream more quickly than the female parasites.”

Blue urine

Encouraged by the promising results of laboratory experiments, Bousema’s team has investigated for the first time the effect of methylene blue on the spread of malaria amongst humans. Bousema: “Methylene blue is very promising, because it can prevent the spread of malaria within such a short time following treatment. There are also indications that methylene blue also works well in species that are resistant to certain medicines.” The dye is safe and was tolerated well by patients. There is however just one awkward side effect: “I have used it myself, and it turns your urine bright blue. This is something that we need to solve, because it could stop people from using it.”

Malaria causes 430?000 deaths every year. Infection is caused by the bite of a malaria-carrying mosquito, and 90% of all deaths are in Africa, mostly amongst children. Malaria prevention focuses primarily on the use of mosquito nets, insecticides and medicine and, as a result, the number of deaths due to malaria has almost halved in the last ten years.

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Materials provided by Radboud University Nijmegen.


Journal Reference:

  1. Alassane Dicko, Michelle E Roh, Halimatou Diawara, Almahamoudou Mahamar, Harouna M Soumare, Kjerstin Lanke, John Bradley, Koualy Sanogo, Daouda T Kone, Kalifa Diarra, Sekouba Keita, Djibrilla Issiaka, Sekou F Traore, Charles McCulloch, Will J R Stone, Jimee Hwang, Olaf Müller, Joelle M Brown, Vinay Srinivasan, Chris Drakeley, Roly Gosling, Ingrid Chen, Teun Bousema. Efficacy and safety of primaquine and methylene blue for prevention of Plasmodium falciparum transmission in Mali: a phase 2, single-blind, randomised controlled trialThe Lancet Infectious Diseases, 2018; DOI: 10.1016/S1473-3099(18)30044-6

PARASITES

WARNING!! TAPEWORM SUSHI! Would You Eat This?

Afterwards, the fish was thrown out in its’ entirety, and the complete work area was cleaned off and sanitized properly. We used our liquid detergent to scrub down the entire area of the cutting board including the cooler top as well as the knives and utensils, and then sprayed the entire area with a mixture of 2 tablespoons of bleach to a gallon of water and let that entire area air dry. The knives, after cleaned off with detergent were also soaked in this bleach liquid and then taken out to air dry.

If you’re a sushi fan, this is why you need to visit only the places that have a good reputation; if not you’ll be faced with some dangerous eating that could get you sick for many many months. Furthermore, we know that many restaurants, upon finding parasites like what we have shown, cut out the “infected areas” and use the rest. They may also cook the infected area as well. We choose to discard the entire fish as this is what a reputable establishment should do. Profit has no place when a patron’s safety is in question.

The cameraman actually had an experience with eating fish infected with parasites. He ate raw wild salmon from a Publix in Lake City FL, a large chain supermarket and the fish was infected. A couple months later, he went to use the toilet and when he was finished, he went to wipe himself and saw a white stringy substance that looked almost like strand of mucus hanging from his anus into the toilet. When he went to wipe away, thinking it was mucus, it kept coming out from his anus and would wipe away. When he took a closer look, he saw that it was moving and was alive! Needless to say, he was in a state of panic and called his doctor who prescribed some pills to take. An hour after, the pills gave him a very bad case of diarrhea which when he looked in the toilet, were signs of the dead tapeworms. It was an experience he has vowed never to go through again…

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PARASITES

OMG! Are You Infected With Spirochete Parasites? Please Sit Down While Watching This!

So far to date. Six people and myself I have seen tested, most people tested had never been tested for spirochetes! Half of them in decent health. All tested positive for this bacterium. 100% infection rate. This literally means that healthy people could be infected at low infestation levels or loads. Bordello strain Spirochetes have a life cycle similar to egg layers! A larva stage may exist too.

Treatment must deal with Ammonia toxicity aka Herx reaction.Treatment must be sustained over more than one life cycle and may have to be interrupted of 24 /48 hrs for any toxicity reactions related to parasite die off.

I would not recommend a Western Blot Test. That raises eyebrows. Dark field microscopy is essential if you have chronic illness.

Lyme is susceptible to ultra violet, infra red, gamma radiation especially in pupil and larval stages. Sudden die off will cause sudden symptoms. If you have intense knee pain, please consider that you could be one of the 90 percent with this infection.

Spirochetes will target dead, dying, injured tissues. May be the reason for cystic response including Lipoma and Rheumatoid cysts. May hide in nerve tissue but I doubt it. Epstein Barr hides in nerve tissue.

If you have cardiac damage to progression of disease, or acute infarction, heavy steroid use, congestive failure spirochetes can infect your heart, similar to Sarcoidosis.

Spirochetes can hide but must feed in plasma. But seem to love red cells at the non oxygenated side of hemoglobin or in venous blood cells that are O2 deficient.

Spirochete will leave people susceptible to viral infections and yeast infections, black mold, tuberculosis and other infections.

Epstein Barr and Spirochetes make a dangerous combination and Spirochete load may actually determine the type and nature of your Epstein Barr / Autoimmune disease.

Longer term, untreated will present like Lyme disease but secondary infections can be more acute and require immediate attention while the baseline Parasitic virus or bacterium goes unaddressed.

Support provocative theory and stimulating discussions. Searching for TRUTH involves all of us!

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PARASITES

Parasite-schizophrenia connection: One-fifth of schizophrenia cases may involve the parasite T. gondii

Many factors, both genetic and environmental, have been blamed for increasing the risk of a diagnosis of schizophrenia. Some, such as a family history of schizophrenia, are widely accepted. Others, such as infection with Toxoplasma gondii, a parasite transmitted by soil, undercooked meat and cat feces, are still viewed with skepticism.

A new study by Gary Smith, professor of population biology and epidemiology at the University of Pennsylvania’s School of Veterinary Medicine, used epidemiological modeling methods to determine the proportion of schizophrenia cases that may be attributable to T. gondii infection. The work, published in the journal Preventive Veterinary Medicine, suggests that about one-fifth of cases may involve the parasite.

“Infection with Toxoplasma is very common, so, even if only a small percentage of people suffer adverse consequences, we could be talking about problems that affect thousands and thousands of people,” Smith said.

In the United States, just over a fifth of the population is infected with T. gondii. The vast majority aren’t aware of it. But there are some populations that need to be concerned. For example, if a woman becomes infected for the first time during pregnancy, her fetus can die or suffer serious developmental problems. People with HIV or other diseases that weaken the immune system are susceptible to a complication of T. gondii infection called toxoplasmic encephalitis, which can be deadly.

Though the medical community has long believed that most healthy people suffer no adverse effects from a T. gondii infection, recent studies have found evidence of worrisome impacts, including an association with schizophrenia because the parasite is found in in the brain as well as in muscles. Other work has shown that some antipsychotic drugs can stop the parasite from reproducing. In addition, field and laboratory studies in mice, rats and people have shown that infection with T. gondii triggers changes in behavior and personality.

To further investigate this connection, Smith sought to calculate the population attributable fraction, or PAF, a metric epidemiologists use to determine how important a risk factor might be. In this case, Smith explained that the PAF is “the proportion of schizophrenia diagnoses that would not occur in a population if T. gondii infections were not present.”

The usual method of calculating the PAF was not well suited to examining the link between schizophrenia and T. gondii, because some of the variables are constantly in flux. For example, the proportion of people infected by T. gondii increases with age. Using a standard epidemiological modeling format, but taking into account all of the age-related changes in the relevant factors, Smith found the average PAF during an average lifetime to be 21.4 percent.

“In other words, we ask, if you could stop infections with this parasite, how many cases could you prevent?” Smith said. “Over a lifetime, we found that you could prevent one-fifth of all cases. That, to me, is significant.”

Smith noted that in some countries, the prevalence of T. gondiiinfection is much higher than in the U.S., and these countries also have a higher incidence of schizophrenia.

People with schizophrenia have greatly reduced life expectancies, and many are unable to work. Family members may also leave the workforce to care for relatives with the disease. For these reasons and others, schizophrenia acts as a large drain on the economy, responsible for $50 to $60 billion in health-care expenditures in the U.S. each year.

“By finding out how important a factor T. gondii infection is, this work might inform our attitude to researching the subject,” Smith said. “Instead of ridiculing the idea of a connection between T. gondii and schizophrenia because it seems so extraordinary, we can sit down and consider the evidence. Perhaps then we might be persuaded to look for more ways to reduce the number of people infected with Toxoplasma.”

The study was supported by the University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine.

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provided by University of Pennsylvania

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