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Committed to relatives: Hounds and wolves share their parasites

Grey wolves, as all wild animals, are hosts to a variety of parasites. The presence of grey wolves in German forests has little influence on the parasite burden of hunting dogs. This reassuring conclusion is the result of a new study at the Berlin-based Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research (IZW). The study examined the faeces of 78 hunting dogs over several months in an area without wolves and in one that had been recolonised. The results have been published in the open access scientific journal International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife.

Since the early 1990s grey wolves are expanding their range in central Europe. This recolonisation gives rise to many questions about this apex predator and its influence on the environment and the life cycles of its parasites, prey and potential competitors. Scientists at the Leibniz-IZW have now uncovered that the presence of wolves has little impact on the parasite burden of domestic dogs used for hunting prey of wolves. The scientists compared hunting dogs based in Eastern Germany, where wolves have re-established themselves since early 2000, with hunting dogs in North of Germany, where — at the time of the study — there were no resident wolf packs.

“Hunting dogs, unlike companion dogs, are especially well suited for this comparison as they, just like the wolf, rummage through forests and have access to game meat.,” Ines Lesniak, a scientist at Leibniz-IZW, explains. “The study focused on the parasites of the internal organs, so-called endoparasites, which can be identified in the faeces of the host.” In a previous study the spectrum of endoparasites present in German grey wolves was described. As previously, the researchers used genetic techniques to determine the presence of parasitic worms and protozoan intestinal parasites belonging to the Sarcocystis genus in hunting dogs. Both the rate of infection and the species richness of worms and Sarcocystis species found in the dogs did not differ between the study areas with and without wolves. The parasite spectrum of hunting dogs and wolves overlapped considerably, indicating that dogs might have replaced the wolf during its absence as an alternate and suitable definite host in the life cycles of some parasites. A single Sarcocystis species (Sarcocystis grueneri), previously identified as a “wolf specialist,” was discovered more frequently in hunting dogs in wolf areas than in hunting dogs in areas without wolves. Like many tapeworms, these protozoans have a life cycle in which carnivores, like dogs or wolves, function as definite host and their prey, such as roe deer and red deer, act as intermediate hosts.

“Unlike wild animals, hunting dogs are regularly dewormed, including the individual hunting dogs which participated in our study,” Lesniak emphasises. “However, these medical treatments do not affect protozoan parasites such as Sarcocystis.” The scientists suspect that the high infection probability of hunting dogs — over 60 percent in both study areas — is caused by the routine feeding of game meat or offal. “It’s in the owner’s hands,” Lesniak says. “Many study participants already act very responsibly by deworming their dogs on a regular basis; in the best cases several times a year.” The official recommendation of the European Scientific Council for Companion Animal Parasites (ESCCAP) is that there should be a monthly treatment of risk groups such as hunting dogs. Such a regular treatment prevents parasitic worms from reproduction in the host and subsequent egg development, which thereby improves the health and wellbeing of the hunting dog. “Dog owners can also reduce the parasite burden of their dogs by the careful feeding of meat leftovers. Cooking the meat is a simple precautionary measure that inactivates all parasites — from protozoans to tapeworm cysts — as well as other pathogens that might be present in the meat.” The Leibniz-IZW considers wolves to play a minor role regarding the excretion and distribution of parasites. “The number of wolves in Germany is extremely low compared to other carnivores such as red foxes or racoon dogs, which can also serve as hosts for these parasites, and it is also low in comparison to the number of hunting dogs,” comments the senior author of the study, Dr. Oliver Krone.

German dog owners can rejoice: None of the parasite species found in hunting dogs are an unreasonable health risk to humans, irrespective of whether the dogs live in an area where wolves are present or not present. The regular treatment with anthelmintics and feeding of cooked leftovers are simple but effective measures to maintain the health of hunting dogs. The Leibniz-IZW study illustrates that concerns regarding pathogens related to the return of wolves are currently unjustified.

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Materials provided by Forschungsverbund Berlin e.V. (FVB).

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Afterwards, the fish was thrown out in its’ entirety, and the complete work area was cleaned off and sanitized properly. We used our liquid detergent to scrub down the entire area of the cutting board including the cooler top as well as the knives and utensils, and then sprayed the entire area with a mixture of 2 tablespoons of bleach to a gallon of water and let that entire area air dry. The knives, after cleaned off with detergent were also soaked in this bleach liquid and then taken out to air dry.

If you’re a sushi fan, this is why you need to visit only the places that have a good reputation; if not you’ll be faced with some dangerous eating that could get you sick for many many months. Furthermore, we know that many restaurants, upon finding parasites like what we have shown, cut out the “infected areas” and use the rest. They may also cook the infected area as well. We choose to discard the entire fish as this is what a reputable establishment should do. Profit has no place when a patron’s safety is in question.

The cameraman actually had an experience with eating fish infected with parasites. He ate raw wild salmon from a Publix in Lake City FL, a large chain supermarket and the fish was infected. A couple months later, he went to use the toilet and when he was finished, he went to wipe himself and saw a white stringy substance that looked almost like strand of mucus hanging from his anus into the toilet. When he went to wipe away, thinking it was mucus, it kept coming out from his anus and would wipe away. When he took a closer look, he saw that it was moving and was alive! Needless to say, he was in a state of panic and called his doctor who prescribed some pills to take. An hour after, the pills gave him a very bad case of diarrhea which when he looked in the toilet, were signs of the dead tapeworms. It was an experience he has vowed never to go through again…

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OMG! Are You Infected With Spirochete Parasites? Please Sit Down While Watching This!

So far to date. Six people and myself I have seen tested, most people tested had never been tested for spirochetes! Half of them in decent health. All tested positive for this bacterium. 100% infection rate. This literally means that healthy people could be infected at low infestation levels or loads. Bordello strain Spirochetes have a life cycle similar to egg layers! A larva stage may exist too.

Treatment must deal with Ammonia toxicity aka Herx reaction.Treatment must be sustained over more than one life cycle and may have to be interrupted of 24 /48 hrs for any toxicity reactions related to parasite die off.

I would not recommend a Western Blot Test. That raises eyebrows. Dark field microscopy is essential if you have chronic illness.

Lyme is susceptible to ultra violet, infra red, gamma radiation especially in pupil and larval stages. Sudden die off will cause sudden symptoms. If you have intense knee pain, please consider that you could be one of the 90 percent with this infection.

Spirochetes will target dead, dying, injured tissues. May be the reason for cystic response including Lipoma and Rheumatoid cysts. May hide in nerve tissue but I doubt it. Epstein Barr hides in nerve tissue.

If you have cardiac damage to progression of disease, or acute infarction, heavy steroid use, congestive failure spirochetes can infect your heart, similar to Sarcoidosis.

Spirochetes can hide but must feed in plasma. But seem to love red cells at the non oxygenated side of hemoglobin or in venous blood cells that are O2 deficient.

Spirochete will leave people susceptible to viral infections and yeast infections, black mold, tuberculosis and other infections.

Epstein Barr and Spirochetes make a dangerous combination and Spirochete load may actually determine the type and nature of your Epstein Barr / Autoimmune disease.

Longer term, untreated will present like Lyme disease but secondary infections can be more acute and require immediate attention while the baseline Parasitic virus or bacterium goes unaddressed.

Support provocative theory and stimulating discussions. Searching for TRUTH involves all of us!

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Parasite-schizophrenia connection: One-fifth of schizophrenia cases may involve the parasite T. gondii

Many factors, both genetic and environmental, have been blamed for increasing the risk of a diagnosis of schizophrenia. Some, such as a family history of schizophrenia, are widely accepted. Others, such as infection with Toxoplasma gondii, a parasite transmitted by soil, undercooked meat and cat feces, are still viewed with skepticism.

A new study by Gary Smith, professor of population biology and epidemiology at the University of Pennsylvania’s School of Veterinary Medicine, used epidemiological modeling methods to determine the proportion of schizophrenia cases that may be attributable to T. gondii infection. The work, published in the journal Preventive Veterinary Medicine, suggests that about one-fifth of cases may involve the parasite.

“Infection with Toxoplasma is very common, so, even if only a small percentage of people suffer adverse consequences, we could be talking about problems that affect thousands and thousands of people,” Smith said.

In the United States, just over a fifth of the population is infected with T. gondii. The vast majority aren’t aware of it. But there are some populations that need to be concerned. For example, if a woman becomes infected for the first time during pregnancy, her fetus can die or suffer serious developmental problems. People with HIV or other diseases that weaken the immune system are susceptible to a complication of T. gondii infection called toxoplasmic encephalitis, which can be deadly.

Though the medical community has long believed that most healthy people suffer no adverse effects from a T. gondii infection, recent studies have found evidence of worrisome impacts, including an association with schizophrenia because the parasite is found in in the brain as well as in muscles. Other work has shown that some antipsychotic drugs can stop the parasite from reproducing. In addition, field and laboratory studies in mice, rats and people have shown that infection with T. gondii triggers changes in behavior and personality.

To further investigate this connection, Smith sought to calculate the population attributable fraction, or PAF, a metric epidemiologists use to determine how important a risk factor might be. In this case, Smith explained that the PAF is “the proportion of schizophrenia diagnoses that would not occur in a population if T. gondii infections were not present.”

The usual method of calculating the PAF was not well suited to examining the link between schizophrenia and T. gondii, because some of the variables are constantly in flux. For example, the proportion of people infected by T. gondii increases with age. Using a standard epidemiological modeling format, but taking into account all of the age-related changes in the relevant factors, Smith found the average PAF during an average lifetime to be 21.4 percent.

“In other words, we ask, if you could stop infections with this parasite, how many cases could you prevent?” Smith said. “Over a lifetime, we found that you could prevent one-fifth of all cases. That, to me, is significant.”

Smith noted that in some countries, the prevalence of T. gondiiinfection is much higher than in the U.S., and these countries also have a higher incidence of schizophrenia.

People with schizophrenia have greatly reduced life expectancies, and many are unable to work. Family members may also leave the workforce to care for relatives with the disease. For these reasons and others, schizophrenia acts as a large drain on the economy, responsible for $50 to $60 billion in health-care expenditures in the U.S. each year.

“By finding out how important a factor T. gondii infection is, this work might inform our attitude to researching the subject,” Smith said. “Instead of ridiculing the idea of a connection between T. gondii and schizophrenia because it seems so extraordinary, we can sit down and consider the evidence. Perhaps then we might be persuaded to look for more ways to reduce the number of people infected with Toxoplasma.”

The study was supported by the University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine.

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provided by University of Pennsylvania

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