Many factors, both genetic and environmental, have been blamed for increasing the risk of a diagnosis of schizophrenia. Some, such as a family history of schizophrenia, are widely accepted. Others, such as infection with Toxoplasma gondii, a parasite transmitted by soil, undercooked meat and cat feces, are still viewed with skepticism.
A new study by Gary Smith, professor of population biology and epidemiology at the University of Pennsylvania’s School of Veterinary Medicine, used epidemiological modeling methods to determine the proportion of schizophrenia cases that may be attributable to T. gondii infection. The work, published in the journal Preventive Veterinary Medicine, suggests that about one-fifth of cases may involve the parasite.
“Infection with Toxoplasma is very common, so, even if only a small percentage of people suffer adverse consequences, we could be talking about problems that affect thousands and thousands of people,” Smith said.
In the United States, just over a fifth of the population is infected with T. gondii. The vast majority aren’t aware of it. But there are some populations that need to be concerned. For example, if a woman becomes infected for the first time during pregnancy, her fetus can die or suffer serious developmental problems. People with HIV or other diseases that weaken the immune system are susceptible to a complication of T. gondii infection called toxoplasmic encephalitis, which can be deadly.
Though the medical community has long believed that most healthy people suffer no adverse effects from a T. gondii infection, recent studies have found evidence of worrisome impacts, including an association with schizophrenia because the parasite is found in in the brain as well as in muscles. Other work has shown that some antipsychotic drugs can stop the parasite from reproducing. In addition, field and laboratory studies in mice, rats and people have shown that infection with T. gondii triggers changes in behavior and personality.
To further investigate this connection, Smith sought to calculate the population attributable fraction, or PAF, a metric epidemiologists use to determine how important a risk factor might be. In this case, Smith explained that the PAF is “the proportion of schizophrenia diagnoses that would not occur in a population if T. gondii infections were not present.”
The usual method of calculating the PAF was not well suited to examining the link between schizophrenia and T. gondii, because some of the variables are constantly in flux. For example, the proportion of people infected by T. gondii increases with age. Using a standard epidemiological modeling format, but taking into account all of the age-related changes in the relevant factors, Smith found the average PAF during an average lifetime to be 21.4 percent.
“In other words, we ask, if you could stop infections with this parasite, how many cases could you prevent?” Smith said. “Over a lifetime, we found that you could prevent one-fifth of all cases. That, to me, is significant.”
Smith noted that in some countries, the prevalence of T. gondiiinfection is much higher than in the U.S., and these countries also have a higher incidence of schizophrenia.
People with schizophrenia have greatly reduced life expectancies, and many are unable to work. Family members may also leave the workforce to care for relatives with the disease. For these reasons and others, schizophrenia acts as a large drain on the economy, responsible for $50 to $60 billion in health-care expenditures in the U.S. each year.
“By finding out how important a factor T. gondii infection is, this work might inform our attitude to researching the subject,” Smith said. “Instead of ridiculing the idea of a connection between T. gondii and schizophrenia because it seems so extraordinary, we can sit down and consider the evidence. Perhaps then we might be persuaded to look for more ways to reduce the number of people infected with Toxoplasma.”
The study was supported by the University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine.
WARNING!! TAPEWORM SUSHI! Would You Eat This?
Afterwards, the fish was thrown out in its’ entirety, and the complete work area was cleaned off and sanitized properly. We used our liquid detergent to scrub down the entire area of the cutting board including the cooler top as well as the knives and utensils, and then sprayed the entire area with a mixture of 2 tablespoons of bleach to a gallon of water and let that entire area air dry. The knives, after cleaned off with detergent were also soaked in this bleach liquid and then taken out to air dry.
If you’re a sushi fan, this is why you need to visit only the places that have a good reputation; if not you’ll be faced with some dangerous eating that could get you sick for many many months. Furthermore, we know that many restaurants, upon finding parasites like what we have shown, cut out the “infected areas” and use the rest. They may also cook the infected area as well. We choose to discard the entire fish as this is what a reputable establishment should do. Profit has no place when a patron’s safety is in question.
The cameraman actually had an experience with eating fish infected with parasites. He ate raw wild salmon from a Publix in Lake City FL, a large chain supermarket and the fish was infected. A couple months later, he went to use the toilet and when he was finished, he went to wipe himself and saw a white stringy substance that looked almost like strand of mucus hanging from his anus into the toilet. When he went to wipe away, thinking it was mucus, it kept coming out from his anus and would wipe away. When he took a closer look, he saw that it was moving and was alive! Needless to say, he was in a state of panic and called his doctor who prescribed some pills to take. An hour after, the pills gave him a very bad case of diarrhea which when he looked in the toilet, were signs of the dead tapeworms. It was an experience he has vowed never to go through again…
OMG! Are You Infected With Spirochete Parasites? Please Sit Down While Watching This!
So far to date. Six people and myself I have seen tested, most people tested had never been tested for spirochetes! Half of them in decent health. All tested positive for this bacterium. 100% infection rate. This literally means that healthy people could be infected at low infestation levels or loads. Bordello strain Spirochetes have a life cycle similar to egg layers! A larva stage may exist too.
Treatment must deal with Ammonia toxicity aka Herx reaction.Treatment must be sustained over more than one life cycle and may have to be interrupted of 24 /48 hrs for any toxicity reactions related to parasite die off.
I would not recommend a Western Blot Test. That raises eyebrows. Dark field microscopy is essential if you have chronic illness.
Lyme is susceptible to ultra violet, infra red, gamma radiation especially in pupil and larval stages. Sudden die off will cause sudden symptoms. If you have intense knee pain, please consider that you could be one of the 90 percent with this infection.
Spirochetes will target dead, dying, injured tissues. May be the reason for cystic response including Lipoma and Rheumatoid cysts. May hide in nerve tissue but I doubt it. Epstein Barr hides in nerve tissue.
If you have cardiac damage to progression of disease, or acute infarction, heavy steroid use, congestive failure spirochetes can infect your heart, similar to Sarcoidosis.
Spirochetes can hide but must feed in plasma. But seem to love red cells at the non oxygenated side of hemoglobin or in venous blood cells that are O2 deficient.
Spirochete will leave people susceptible to viral infections and yeast infections, black mold, tuberculosis and other infections.
Epstein Barr and Spirochetes make a dangerous combination and Spirochete load may actually determine the type and nature of your Epstein Barr / Autoimmune disease.
Longer term, untreated will present like Lyme disease but secondary infections can be more acute and require immediate attention while the baseline Parasitic virus or bacterium goes unaddressed.
Support provocative theory and stimulating discussions. Searching for TRUTH involves all of us!
Scientists effectively disrupt communication between parasites that spread disease
Prof. Shulamit Michaeli, Dean of Bar-Ilan’s Mina and Everard Goodman Faculty of Life Sciences, and member of the Bar-Ilan Institute of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials (BINA), has demonstrated how parasite migration can be controlled by creating an unfavorable environment or by damaging cell health, since parasites under stress secrete vesicles that disrupt their socially coordinated movement in groups. This research has just been published in the peer-reviewed journal PLOS Pathogens.
Traveling from host to host Michaeli’s team, including students Dror Eliaz and Sriram Kannan, study trypanosomatids, single-cell parasites which cause major diseases such as African sleeping sickness, leishmaniosis and Chagas’ disease, affecting millions of people. Leishmaniasis, for example, is found in 88 countries and over 300 million people are at risk of infection. African trypanosomes infect cattleand the annual economic loss due to this disease is estimated at about US$2 billion. The American Chagas’ disease causes major heart and intestinal malfunction. Around 90 million are at risk of infection, with five to eight million people affected annually.
Trypanosome parasites are transmitted to mammals by the blood-sucking tsetse fly. The parasites’ stopover in the insect-host has two stages. They live in the insect’s gut for two to three weeks and then migrate to the saliva glands. When the fly has its next meal, the parasites are transferred via the saliva to the prey, infecting its bloodstream. In this way the mammal now becomes host to the parasite, and the disease is spread. To complete their two-stage stay in the insect, the parasites must undertake an epic journey of active migration fraught with perils, such as the fly’s digestive enzymes, immune system and the need to cross the intestinal barrier.
With a little help from my friends Research has shown that these insect-stage parasites are capable of group behavior, using cell-cell signaling to promote collective migration. By moving in numbers they are better able to transverse the fly’s intestines, complete the journey to the saliva glands, and proliferate the disease. But how do these parasites communicate in order to coordinate their movements in response to signals from neighboring parasites? Until now, the signaling mechanism has been unclear. Prof. Michaeli’s new study describes a novel process demonstrating that under stress the parasites secrete exosomes which communicate a message to neighboring cells that something is wrong. Exosomes are small vesicles secreted by cells, implicated in cell-cell communication and the transmission of disease. Depending on the type and physiological state of the secreting cell, exosome interaction with recipient cells may help ward off disease or, alternatively, exacerbate it. For example, they have recently been shown to influence the proliferation and metastasis of melanoma tumor cells.
Keep your distance
Michaeli’s team interfered with the parasite communication system by inducing “stress” in parasite cells causing them to release exosomes. They found that the presence of these exosome-secreting cells disrupted the normal migration of the parasite cells. Parasite “scouts” which monitor the environment in the insect-host pick up “keep away” messages from these damaged cells, and, in turn, communicate with the migrating parasite population, messaging them to avoid contact with the “unfit” ones. When exosome secretion was inhibited no effect on the migration was observed. Michaeli’s results strongly suggest that exosomes act as a repellent that drives the fit parasites away from either damaged cells or an unfavorable environment.
Prof. Michaeli explains the importance of these findings. “A Biblical story relates the collapse of the Tower of Babel because the people lost the common language with which to communicate with each other. Uncovering how to shut down the parasites’ communication system may lead to the development of drugs to treat and prevent the spread of these devastating diseases.”
Materials provided by Bar-Ilan University.
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