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PARASITES

Tracking the viral parasites of giant viruses over time

In freshwater lakes, microbes regulate the flow of carbon and determine if the bodies of water serve as carbon sinks or carbon sources. Algae and cyanobacteria in particular can trap and use carbon, but their capacity to do so may be impacted by viruses. Viruses exist amidst all bacteria, usually in a 10-fold excess, and are made up of various sizes ranging from giant viruses, to much smaller viruses known as virophages (which live in giant viruses and use their machinery to replicate and spread.) Virophages can change the way a giant virus interacts with its host eukaryotic cell. For example, if algae are co-infected by a virophage and giant virus, the virophage limits the giant virus’ ability to replicate efficiently. This reduces the impact a giant virus has on the diversion of nutrients, allowing the host algae to multiply, which could lead to more frequent algal blooms.

Using metagenome data sets collected over several years in northern freshwater lakes, a team led by researchers at The Ohio State University and the U.S. Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (DOE JGI), a DOE Office of Science User Facility, uncovered 25 novel sequences of virophages. Reported October 11, 2017 in Nature Communications, the identification of these novel sequences effectively doubles the number of virophages known since their discovery a decade ago.

“Usually metagenome data sets are one-offs,” said DOE JGI scientist and first author Simon Roux. “People had started to see virophages in metagenomes, but no one had a long time-series until now. Was it here once? Always? We never really knew this, but it’s a critical piece of information to understand their importance.”

The work stemmed from a Community Science Program (CSP) proposal involving northern freshwater lakes by KT (Trina) McMahon of the University of Wisconsin-Madison. Samples of microbial communities in Lake Mendota and Trout Bog Lake were regularly collected over several years as part of the NSF-funded North Temperate Lakes Long Term Ecological Research (NTL-LTER) project of the National Science Foundation. Sequencing and analyzing these metagenomes from the 3-year and the 5-year time-series is allowing researchers to identify the community members, determine their metabolic pathways, and follow changes in communities over several years.

Beyond looking at the microbial communities, McMahon and Rex Malmstrom, head of the DOE JGI Micro-Scale Applications group, asked collaborator Matt Sullivan at The Ohio State University if he’d be interested in using the same metagenomic data sets to look at the lakes’ viral ecology. Roux started mining the data sets while still a postdoctoral fellow with the Sullivan lab. “I knew there were lots of viruses in the sequence data, but not that some the viruses were themselves hosts to other viruses,” said Malmstrom. “With time series data we could do more than assemble genome and build phylogenetic trees, the data allowed us to examine genetic variation within populations and look for co-occurrence and abundance patterns between virophages and their giant virus hosts. With so many time points in the data set, you can find strong connections.”

Trina McMahon, whose CSP datasets were the basis of this work, says having the viral ecology information helps form a more complete picture of the ecosystem. “We are thrilled to have one more piece of the puzzle. Viruses are clearly playing a major role in shaping community composition and therefore function, of the whole lake ecosystem. My own lab lacks the expertise to tackle viruses alone, hence the collaboration with Simon and Matt Sullivan is so important. Our long term goal is to learn enough about the forces controlling community assembly and dynamics, as well as the ecological traits of each lineage, in order to create more predictive models about how freshwater lakes will respond to climate and land-use change, at an ecosystem scale.”

Aside from doubling the number of virophages in public databases, the time series allowed Roux and his colleagues to see the viruses’ ecological profiles — if factors such as the seasons or abundance of particular microbes influenced their own presence. Through co-occurrence analysis, the researchers associated the virophages with sequences of known lineages of giant viruses, and proposed the existence of 3 new groups of candidate giant viruses infected by virophages. These co-occurrence analyses also allowed them to find putative associations between the giant virus sequences and specific eukaryotic hosts.

“These findings are correlation-based,” noted Roux, “but it’s a good example of a metagenomics use case. Metagenomes helped us not only discover new viral diversity and determine what it should do in the ecosystem, but it helps us design hypothesis and follow-up experiments about virus-host interactions so we’re not just throwing out a wide net blindly.”

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PARASITES

WARNING!! TAPEWORM SUSHI! Would You Eat This?

Afterwards, the fish was thrown out in its’ entirety, and the complete work area was cleaned off and sanitized properly. We used our liquid detergent to scrub down the entire area of the cutting board including the cooler top as well as the knives and utensils, and then sprayed the entire area with a mixture of 2 tablespoons of bleach to a gallon of water and let that entire area air dry. The knives, after cleaned off with detergent were also soaked in this bleach liquid and then taken out to air dry.

If you’re a sushi fan, this is why you need to visit only the places that have a good reputation; if not you’ll be faced with some dangerous eating that could get you sick for many many months. Furthermore, we know that many restaurants, upon finding parasites like what we have shown, cut out the “infected areas” and use the rest. They may also cook the infected area as well. We choose to discard the entire fish as this is what a reputable establishment should do. Profit has no place when a patron’s safety is in question.

The cameraman actually had an experience with eating fish infected with parasites. He ate raw wild salmon from a Publix in Lake City FL, a large chain supermarket and the fish was infected. A couple months later, he went to use the toilet and when he was finished, he went to wipe himself and saw a white stringy substance that looked almost like strand of mucus hanging from his anus into the toilet. When he went to wipe away, thinking it was mucus, it kept coming out from his anus and would wipe away. When he took a closer look, he saw that it was moving and was alive! Needless to say, he was in a state of panic and called his doctor who prescribed some pills to take. An hour after, the pills gave him a very bad case of diarrhea which when he looked in the toilet, were signs of the dead tapeworms. It was an experience he has vowed never to go through again…

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PARASITES

OMG! Are You Infected With Spirochete Parasites? Please Sit Down While Watching This!

So far to date. Six people and myself I have seen tested, most people tested had never been tested for spirochetes! Half of them in decent health. All tested positive for this bacterium. 100% infection rate. This literally means that healthy people could be infected at low infestation levels or loads. Bordello strain Spirochetes have a life cycle similar to egg layers! A larva stage may exist too.

Treatment must deal with Ammonia toxicity aka Herx reaction.Treatment must be sustained over more than one life cycle and may have to be interrupted of 24 /48 hrs for any toxicity reactions related to parasite die off.

I would not recommend a Western Blot Test. That raises eyebrows. Dark field microscopy is essential if you have chronic illness.

Lyme is susceptible to ultra violet, infra red, gamma radiation especially in pupil and larval stages. Sudden die off will cause sudden symptoms. If you have intense knee pain, please consider that you could be one of the 90 percent with this infection.

Spirochetes will target dead, dying, injured tissues. May be the reason for cystic response including Lipoma and Rheumatoid cysts. May hide in nerve tissue but I doubt it. Epstein Barr hides in nerve tissue.

If you have cardiac damage to progression of disease, or acute infarction, heavy steroid use, congestive failure spirochetes can infect your heart, similar to Sarcoidosis.

Spirochetes can hide but must feed in plasma. But seem to love red cells at the non oxygenated side of hemoglobin or in venous blood cells that are O2 deficient.

Spirochete will leave people susceptible to viral infections and yeast infections, black mold, tuberculosis and other infections.

Epstein Barr and Spirochetes make a dangerous combination and Spirochete load may actually determine the type and nature of your Epstein Barr / Autoimmune disease.

Longer term, untreated will present like Lyme disease but secondary infections can be more acute and require immediate attention while the baseline Parasitic virus or bacterium goes unaddressed.

Support provocative theory and stimulating discussions. Searching for TRUTH involves all of us!

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PARASITES

Parasite-schizophrenia connection: One-fifth of schizophrenia cases may involve the parasite T. gondii

Many factors, both genetic and environmental, have been blamed for increasing the risk of a diagnosis of schizophrenia. Some, such as a family history of schizophrenia, are widely accepted. Others, such as infection with Toxoplasma gondii, a parasite transmitted by soil, undercooked meat and cat feces, are still viewed with skepticism.

A new study by Gary Smith, professor of population biology and epidemiology at the University of Pennsylvania’s School of Veterinary Medicine, used epidemiological modeling methods to determine the proportion of schizophrenia cases that may be attributable to T. gondii infection. The work, published in the journal Preventive Veterinary Medicine, suggests that about one-fifth of cases may involve the parasite.

“Infection with Toxoplasma is very common, so, even if only a small percentage of people suffer adverse consequences, we could be talking about problems that affect thousands and thousands of people,” Smith said.

In the United States, just over a fifth of the population is infected with T. gondii. The vast majority aren’t aware of it. But there are some populations that need to be concerned. For example, if a woman becomes infected for the first time during pregnancy, her fetus can die or suffer serious developmental problems. People with HIV or other diseases that weaken the immune system are susceptible to a complication of T. gondii infection called toxoplasmic encephalitis, which can be deadly.

Though the medical community has long believed that most healthy people suffer no adverse effects from a T. gondii infection, recent studies have found evidence of worrisome impacts, including an association with schizophrenia because the parasite is found in in the brain as well as in muscles. Other work has shown that some antipsychotic drugs can stop the parasite from reproducing. In addition, field and laboratory studies in mice, rats and people have shown that infection with T. gondii triggers changes in behavior and personality.

To further investigate this connection, Smith sought to calculate the population attributable fraction, or PAF, a metric epidemiologists use to determine how important a risk factor might be. In this case, Smith explained that the PAF is “the proportion of schizophrenia diagnoses that would not occur in a population if T. gondii infections were not present.”

The usual method of calculating the PAF was not well suited to examining the link between schizophrenia and T. gondii, because some of the variables are constantly in flux. For example, the proportion of people infected by T. gondii increases with age. Using a standard epidemiological modeling format, but taking into account all of the age-related changes in the relevant factors, Smith found the average PAF during an average lifetime to be 21.4 percent.

“In other words, we ask, if you could stop infections with this parasite, how many cases could you prevent?” Smith said. “Over a lifetime, we found that you could prevent one-fifth of all cases. That, to me, is significant.”

Smith noted that in some countries, the prevalence of T. gondiiinfection is much higher than in the U.S., and these countries also have a higher incidence of schizophrenia.

People with schizophrenia have greatly reduced life expectancies, and many are unable to work. Family members may also leave the workforce to care for relatives with the disease. For these reasons and others, schizophrenia acts as a large drain on the economy, responsible for $50 to $60 billion in health-care expenditures in the U.S. each year.

“By finding out how important a factor T. gondii infection is, this work might inform our attitude to researching the subject,” Smith said. “Instead of ridiculing the idea of a connection between T. gondii and schizophrenia because it seems so extraordinary, we can sit down and consider the evidence. Perhaps then we might be persuaded to look for more ways to reduce the number of people infected with Toxoplasma.”

The study was supported by the University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine.

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