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First Video of DNA Organization Settles Scientific Debate

A condensin protein complex creates a loop in DNA. (Credit: Cees Dekker Lab TU Delft/Scixel)

For all its precise helical structure, the DNA inside our cells is a mess.

When a cell isn’t preparing for the process of splitting itself in two, our DNA lies in a massive tangle inside the cell nucleus; a strand more than six feet in length jumbled like an earbud cord. But when it comes time to undergo cellular division, this disorderly strand must be packaged neatly into chromosomes to be passed onto daughter cells — stuffed into a space much tighter than before.

Around and Around

To accomplish the task, a protein complex known as condensin grabs onto a strand of DNA and passes it through a ring-like structure to coil it into orderly loops perfect for packaging — a process that researchers have caught on camera for the first time. A team of researchers from Germany and the Netherlands was able to stain the proteins responsible so they could be viewed in action under a microscope and fix the DNA in place in order to watch the process happen in real time. The feat settles a debate about how condensin works and could provide insights into hereditable diseases and some forms of cancer.

That condensin is responsible for looping DNA has been suggested for years now — the idea, in fact, seems to have come to one researcher as he handled ropes and climbing equipment during a mountaineering expedition — but researchers weren’t quite sure if that theory or another was accurate. Either condensin looped DNA, or it relied on hook-like structures to tie it together. The video, part of research published Thursday in Science, makes clear that the former mechanism is the right one.

After staining the condensin with a fluorescent protein and pinning down a strand of DNA in the lab, the researchers introduced a slight current that would stretch any resulting loops out clearly. After that, all they had to do was bring it into focus with a microscope. The resulting footage shows condensin drawing in a strand of DNA and spooling it out in a clear loop.

And the protein complex is good at its job, too. Opponents of the looping theory had suggested that such a mechanism would suck up too much energy, in the form of ATP, for it to work. The researchers newest work indicates that condensin is actually quite efficient, likely because it reels DNA in many base pairs at a time, as opposed to one by one. It’s fast, too, operating at a relatively high rate of around 1,500 base pairs per second. Intriguingly, they also observed that condensin only pulls on one of the two sides of the loop it is gathered, something they still can’t explain.

The findings aren’t only visual evidence of a crucial cellular process, they could also help elucidate the causes of certain genetic diseases related to the protein family condensin belongs to, called SMC. Arranging chromosomes during cell division, something that condensin also helps with, can lead to cancer if done incorrectly. The new insights into how it operates could provide further avenues for research in that direction as well.

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Yet Another Study Says Vitamin Supplements Are Worthless

(Credit: Thunderstock/Shutterstock)

Vitamin — the first four letters come from the Latin word for “life.” To sustain that, we need these organic compounds in small amounts, but it seems their purpose ends there.

New research reaffirms the counterintuitive notion that vitamin and mineral supplements aren’t the magical panacea we’ve been led to believe. It’s something that researchers have been finding for years, and a meta-analysis, summarizing the findings of 179 individual studies, published on Monday in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology found that most common vitamins provide precisely zero benefit to those taking them.

Non-vital Vitamins

Specifically, the study concluded that multivitamins, as well as calcium, and vitamins C and D are essentially powerless. They do no harm, but they might as well be placebos. These findings run contrary to popular wisdom, which instructs us to load up on supplements to reduce the risk of heart disease, cancer and premature death.

This isn’t the first time science has refuted vitamin worship. In 2013 a series of studies in the Annals of Internal Medicine, collectively including hundreds of thousands of participants, concurred that vitamins do not lead to any boost in health. In fact, the studies found that beta-carotene, vitamin E and possibly high doses of vitamin A actually slightly increase mortality.

The only supplement that may live up to its reputation, according to the new study, is folic acid. This, with or without vitamin B, may prevent cardiovascular disease and stroke.

The tradition of using vitamins and minerals for nutrient deficiencies dates back to 1747, when the British naval surgeon James Lind treated scurvy with citrus fruit, rich in vitamin C. Physicians routinely make such prescriptions, though usually only in cases where the patient has a demonstrated deficiency of a particular vitamin or nutrient.

Supplement Crazy

In recent years, though, we’ve come to view supplements as the gateway to general health and longevity. A Gallup poll in 2013 showed that 50 percent of Americans regularly take vitamins or multivitamins.

On the flip side, a comparison of Gallup polls in 1975 and 2016 reveals plunging public trust in the mainstream American medical system. This phenomenon may have contributed to the ascent of “natural” vitamin and mineral supplements.

But it probably also stems from rampant marketing and advertising. Thanks to the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994, manufacturers don’t have to prove the to the Food and Drug Administration that their supplements work. They can claim their products work, though, as long as they keep it vague (“strengthens the body”) and don’t profess to truly treat anything.

Call it a healthcare failure, call it a marketing miracle. Either way, call a doctor before you pop another vitamin. Odds are they’ll tell you to stick to fruits and veggies.

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KNOW THE CAUSE: Lyme Disease and Fungus

Lyme Disease and Fungus

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Ross Pelton, RPH, PHD, CCN
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Probiotics That Produce Glutathione
The Vitamin You Don’t Need To Swallow
Lyme Disease and Fungus
Only Buy These If Organically Produced

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Morgellons and Dope (Crack)

Even though this person in this video blog needs help with her drug addiction she shares her true story of being infected with morgellons. Everyone has their own way in dealing with this horrible disease. If you google Morgellons or resistant scabies mites you will come across forums of people questioning if some narcotic drugs could possibly get rid of these things. It’s not uncommon to hear individuals who gets high and complains about feeling bugs crawling all over them, biting them, etc. In reality in many cases it is true. Because of these narcotic drugs poisoning the system it drives them out of the body. Just as the same as if taking anti-parasitic drugs such as ivermectin.

Morgellons disease is a poorly understood condition characterized by small fibers, particles and bugs emerging from the skin. People with this condition often report feeling as if something is crawling on or stinging/ biting their skin.

In no way do we endorse or suggest in using any illegal substance to deal or attempt to get rid of morgellons or resistant scabies mites.

 

 

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