For centuries, river blindness (onchocerciasis) plagued remote communities in Africa, Latin America and Yemen, and there was no answer to this affliction. This all began to change in the mid-to-late 1970s, when Dr. William Campbell of Merck Research Laboratories suggested the use of ivermectin (later named Mectizan) for river blindness in humans. Following the breakthrough
New Hope with Moxidectin?Moxidectin is well established in veterinary practice to treat a range of parasites, including sarcoptic mange. This provides a solid foundation for considering its potential translation to human scabies. Some studies show excellent efficacy as a single 0.2 mg/kg dose, with 100% cure at day 14 in cattle , whereas sheep required two 0.2 mg/kg doses to achieve cure [39,40], with a single dose reducing mites by 75%–92%. When higher concentrations (1 mg/kg) of a long-acting formulation were used, 100% efficacy was achieved in a single dose . Importantly, both 0.2 mg/kg and 1 mg/kg single-doses prevented reinfection from untreated animals for 25 and 54 days, respectively [41,42]. Differences in observed clinical efficacy may relate to the severity of infestation or pharmacokinetic differences between different species. Differences are also evident between injectable, oral tablet, and liquid formulations, so determining this in human pharmacokinetic profiling, including skin levels, would be ideal, in addition to controlled dose-finding efficacy studies.