Connect with us

BIOLOGY

More than 100 new gut bacteria discovered in human microbiome

HPSN

Published

on

Scientists working on the gut microbiome have discovered and isolated more than 100 completely new species of bacteria from healthy people’s intestines. The study from the Wellcome Sanger Institute, Hudson Institute of Medical Research, Australia, and EMBL’s European Bioinformatics Institute, has created the most comprehensive collection of human intestinal bacteria to date. This will help researchers worldwide to investigate how our microbiome keeps us healthy, and its role in disease.

Reported today (4th February) in Nature Biotechnology, the new resource will allow scientists to detect which bacteria are present in the human gut, more accurately and faster than ever before. This will also provide the foundation to develop new ways of treating diseases such as gastrointestinal disorders, infections and immune conditions.

About 2 per cent of a person’s body weight is due to bacteria and the intestinal microbiome is a major bacterial site and an essential contributor to human health. Imbalances in our gut microbiome can contribute to diseases and complex conditions such as Inflammatory Bowel Disease, Irritable Bowel Syndrome allergies and obesity. However, as many species of gut bacteria are extremely difficult to grow in the laboratory, there is a huge gap in our knowledge of them.

In this study, researchers studied faecal samples from 20 people from the UK and Canada, and successfully grew and DNA sequenced 737 individual bacterial strains from these. Analysis of these isolates revealed 273 separate bacterial species, including 173 that had never previously been sequenced. Of these, 105 species had never even been isolated before.

Dr. Samuel Forster, first author on the paper from the Wellcome Sanger Institute and Hudson Institute of Medical Research, Australia, said: “This study has led to the creation of the largest and most comprehensive public database of human health-associated intestinal bacteria. The gut microbiome plays a major in health and disease. This important resource will fundamentally change the way researchers study the microbiome.”

Standard methods to understand how the gut microbiome impacts on human health involves sequencing the DNA from mixed samples of gut bacteria to try to understand each component. However, these studies have been severely hampered by the lack of individually isolated bacteria and reference genomes from them.

The new culture collection and reference genomes will make it much cheaper and easier for researchers to determine which bacteria are present within communities of people and research their role in disease.

Dr. Rob Finn, an author from EMBL’s European Bioinformatics Institute, said: “For researchers trying to find out which species of bacteria are present in a person’s microbiome, the database of reference genomes from pure isolates of gut bacteria is crucial. Then if they want to test a hypothesis, for example that a particular species is enriched in a certain disease, they can get the isolate itself from the collection and physically test in the laboratory if this species seems to be important.”

Dr. Trevor Lawley, Senior author from the Wellcome Sanger Institute, said: “This culture collection of individual bacteria will be a game-changer for basic and translational microbiome research. By culturing the unculturable, we have created a resource that will make microbiome analysis faster, cheaper and more accurate and will allow further study of their biology and functions. Ultimately, this will lead us towards developing new diagnostics and treatments for diseases such as gastrointestinal disorders, infections and immune conditions.”


Explore further:
Bugs as drugs: Harnessing novel gut bacteria for human health

More information:
Nature Biotechnology (2019). DOI: 10.1038/s41587-018-0009-7

Journal reference:
Nature Biotechnology

Provided by:
Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute

Continue Reading
Click to comment

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Medical News

#CDC

6 of every 10 infectious diseases are #zoonotic, meaning they can spread between people & animals. Experts from CDC, @Interior, & @USDA have identified 8 of the most important zoonotic diseases in the US & plan to use a #OneHealth approach to fight them. bit.ly/2W6zOFE

test Twitter Media - 6 of every 10 infectious diseases are #zoonotic, meaning they can spread between people & animals. Experts from CDC, @Interior, & @USDA have identified 8 of the most important zoonotic diseases in the US & plan to use a #OneHealth approach to fight them. https://t.co/hX11Tph0Su https://t.co/sYBHYQQamk

#DYK there are simple steps you can take to prevent food poisoning? One easy tip is to use a food thermometer to make sure food is fully cooked. go.usa.gov/xmTqz

test Twitter Media - #DYK there are simple steps you can take to prevent food poisoning? One easy tip is to use a food thermometer to make sure food is fully cooked. https://t.co/QlFpd1alG3 https://t.co/4kQ9JWhEf3

#LymeDisease

Good news for patients with #LymeDisease | A new study sheds more light on the question of #Lyme disease symptoms that persist after a “standard” course of antibiotic treatment. Finds triple-drug combination clears infection in mice. Learn more here: lymedisease.org/lymesci-jhu-pe…

test Twitter Media - Good news for patients with #LymeDisease | A new study sheds more light on the question of #Lyme disease symptoms that persist after a “standard” course of antibiotic treatment. Finds triple-drug combination clears infection in mice. 
Learn more here: 
https://t.co/HAg1kncTAu https://t.co/5pS4lbHwOF

Excellent idea for #LymeDisease Awareness. You can order these signs free from the CDC. Then meet with your city Park & Recreation Dept. and have them distribute to your local parks. May is #LymeDiseaseAwareness Month. Help spread the word about Lyme and tick-borne diseases. 💚 twitter.com/beccainparadis…

#BeTickAware this spring! These tiny spider-like creatures can carry bacteria such as #LymeDisease. Top tips? Wear long sleeves and trousers and check your skin. See NHS Choices for more tips and advice nhs.uk/conditions/lym… #TickAwareness

test Twitter Media - #BeTickAware this spring! These tiny spider-like creatures can carry bacteria such as #LymeDisease. 
Top tips? Wear long sleeves and trousers and check your skin. 
See NHS Choices for more tips and advice https://t.co/M6gk8195P1  #TickAwareness https://t.co/YKCBFQUfWS

#NTD’s

In the past 15 years, housing has dramatically improved in sub-Saharan Africa. On #WorldMalariaDay, @RTI_Intl @donal_bisanzio examines how increased investment in housing can have a positive effect on health outcomes in #malaria, #NTDs & more: bit.ly/2IXqS1V @USAIDGH

test Twitter Media - In the past 15 years, housing has dramatically improved in sub-Saharan Africa. On #WorldMalariaDay, @RTI_Intl @donal_bisanzio examines how increased investment in housing can have a positive effect on health outcomes in #malaria, #NTDs & more: https://t.co/Q4nP21rEE6 @USAIDGH https://t.co/QxQDtCK6q3

Can #ArtificialIntelligence help identify new drug leads for #NTDs? We've partnered with San Fransico-based #AI company @AtomwiseInc to fast track drug development for #Chagas disease. Read more about some of our early successes: dndi.org/2019/media-cen…

test Twitter Media - Can #ArtificialIntelligence help identify new drug leads for #NTDs? We've partnered with San Fransico-based #AI company @AtomwiseInc to fast track drug development for #Chagas disease. Read more about some of our early successes: https://t.co/Z75ykRp6v9 https://t.co/Ep0gLEIZxi

Trending

Copyright © 2019. All Rights Reserved. The Human Parasite Support Network.